Tuesday, August 18, 2009

Komodo Island, including five great wonders of the world

Komodo National security (TNK) on the western tip of Flores island, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT), which inhabited ancient animals Varanus commodoensis entry in five of seven wonders of the world.
Komodo position after the Amazone forest in Brazil, Bu Tinah Island in the United Arab Emirates, in the Galapagos Islands and Ecuador Iguanzu River Falls in Brazil, said the Head Office of Tourism and Culture NTT, Ansgerius Takalapeta in Kupang on Saturday (25 / 7).
"The position of TNK had a perch in the sequence of four on Friday (24 / 7), after the island of Sipadan Malaysia eliminate friction and Black Forest in Germany. But now, its position in the big five," he said.
He expects all the components of NTT and Indonesia in general and the international community, continue to provide support to TNK signed in order to stay in the seven wonders of the world.
Former Regent Alor adding that the two periods, competition terberat TNK is the Amazon forest in Brazil and the Black Forest in Germany.

Cenderawasih bird

Cenderawasih bird or a stranger called with the name of Bird of Paradise, is a typical bird of Papua, Indonesia. 43 of this beautiful bird species, 35 of which can be found in Papua. The rest, it is hard to find.

Its beautiful fur, mainly found in the male Cendrawasih. Generally, wool is very bright with a combination of black, reddish-brown, orange, yellow, white, blue, green, and purple. Cendrawasih species that are popular Paradisaea apoda, Paradisaea minor, Cicinnurus regius, and Seleucidis melanoleuca.

Birds usually live in dense forests or in low. He has a habit to play in the morning when the sun began to light appeared in the eastern horizon.
Cendrawasih male wearing fur neck to apprehend the kind of interesting opponents. Cendrawasih very masculine dance spectacular. While singing at the top of the limb, this male wiggle to different directions. Sometimes even reversed depending on the limb. However, each species of course have a distinctive type of dance.

In Papua, animals, animals in this region have a unique. Cendrawasih bird is one of the few birds that ilmiahnya name means "heaven", "magnificent", "beautiful", and "very good".

Robby Sawaki, one of the traditional artists of Papua, calling birds as Cenderawasih legged woman is not or Apoda. In Latin Cendrawasih bird described as paradisaea apoda. Birds are very beautiful but does not have the legs to be not from earth, because they walk or sit in a tree.

Cendrawasih thirty species are found in Indonesia, 28 of which are found in Papua is home to Cendrawasih paradigalla carunculata, Cendrawasih long tails astrapia nigra, Cendrawasih paratia parotia sefilata, Cendrawasih cicinnurus respublica Wilson, and red Cendrawasih paradiasea rubra.

A son of the Papua-day work as a tour guide, Helmut Kmur, say, in every occasion when he was traveling in the Land of Papua, many see it and witness with their own eyes the animals from Papua and in the catch in the sale. "One of them is bird paradise, which I often see birds on the market outside the area of Papua, "said Helmut.

Helmut, also deplore the original Papua hunt and kill a protected animal. "I take an example, people want to create an event must be present Cenderawasih bird as a sign," he said.

Birds get the nickname the bird paradise, the first population quite a lot in the forest of Papua, but continue to be hunted because of the drastic population decline and now is difficult to find. The causes, among others, forest where they seek refuge and breed narrow start line with the increasing logging.
Andreas Lameki, Head of Forestry Biak Numfor said, Cendrawasih bird hunting is prohibited based on the actual letter of the decision the Ministry of Forestry, but because the price in the market arouse enough, so that hunters continue to hunt wild.

While Cendrawasih king, Cendrawasih bald, red Cendrawasih, toowa, and Cendrawasih small yellow tails, have been included in the list of types of protected animals under the Law No 5 Year 1990 and PP RI No. 7 of 1999.

In many bird market in Jakarta a few years ago, a bird Cendrawasih sold illegally with the price Rp.1-2 million per head. Meanwhile, the collectors are also buying the bird of Paradise that has been preserved with the price of Rp750 to Rp1 million thousand.

Saturday, August 15, 2009

The Sumatran tiger

The Sumatran tiger is the smallest of the tiger subspecies as compared to the Siberian tiger which is the largest.
Sumatran male tigers average 8 feet in length (2.4 meters) from head to tail and weigh about 265 pounds (120 kilograms).  Females average 7 feet in length (2.2 meters) and weigh about 200 pounds (90 kilograms).The smaller size of the Sumatran tiger makes it easier to move quickly through the jungle.  Also, their stripes are narrower than other tiger species.  The tiger's patterned coloring is an adaptation for camouflage in their natural habitat, which is often tall grass.  Webbing between their toes, when spread,  enables the Sumatran tiger to be very fast swimmer. They will, if given the chance, run hoofed prey into the water who are much slower swimmers.


The Sumatran tiger is found only on the Indonesian island of Sumatra in habitat that ranges from lowland forest to sub mountain and mountain forest including some peat moss forests.   According the the Tiger Information Center and the World Wildlife Fund there are no more than 500 of these tigers left in the wild with some estimates considerably lower.

Sumatra has undergone much agricultural growth and as a result, tiger habitat has become fragmented with about 400 tigers inhabiting five National Parks and two Game Reserves.  The largest population of about 110 tigers lives in Gunung Leuser National Park.  Another 100 live in unprotected areas that will soon  be lost to agriculture. The tigers that live in unprotected areas are very vulnerable to poaching as well as the killing of problem animals that come in contact with villagers encroaching upon the animal's habitat.

The continuing loss of habitat is intensifying the crises to save this tiger.


The extent of a tiger's range varies according to habitat and availability of prey. Its sight and hearing are very acute, accounting for the tiger being such an efficient predator. The tiger lives alone for the most part, and there is only occasional cooperation between different individuals. A male will not tolerate other males staying in his territory, but will permit other transient males to move through his area.

A female uses her territory only for hunting, while the territory of a single male can overlap with those held by several females. The tiger emerges to hunt at dusk, and may travel more than 20 miles in a night.

The hunting method is slow and patient, stalking through often dense cover until close enough to spring. Tigers in general tend to attack prey from the side or rear at close range and when the prey weighs more than half that of the tiger, a throat bite is used and death is caused by suffocation. They will kill whatever they can catch, including fish, crocodiles and fowl, with the most common larger prey being wild pigs and deer.

Interestingly, is has been learned that one of the main reasons orangutans spend a minimal amount of time on the ground is from fear of tiger attack.


In the Zoo the tigers are fed an assortment of fish, meat and poultry parts.


Tigers can breed at any time of the year, but they typically mate in winter or spring. Tigers appear to reach maturity at about 4 years of age, although earlier maturity has been recorded. Gestation is normally 103 days. The usual number of cubs is two or three, though there may be as many as six.

The cubs are blind and helpless at birth weighing about 3 pounds each. Their eyes usually open by the tenth day, although some zoo-born cubs have their eyes open as soon as they are born. During the first 8 weeks the cubs consume only their mother's milk. They are suckled for 5 or 6 months.

The cubs leave the den for the first time when they are 2 months old. They are wholly dependent until they are about 6 months old when they learn how to kill.  They can hunt for themselves by the time they are about 18 months old and are fully independent at two years of age.  Longevity in the wild is 15 years and 20 years in captivity.


Sumatran tigers are critically endangered.  The Indonesian Sumatran Tiger Conservation Strategy has been established by the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry and it outlines management strategies for both wild and captive tiger populations.

Even without any further losses of these magnificent animals,, the present populations are so small that they are vulnerable to severe environmental catastrophes, as well as genetic problems typical of small populations.

Indonesia has 65 captive Sumatran tigers living in zoos, 85 in European zoos and 20 in Australian zoos. There are  70 tigers managed by North American zoos of which the Honolulu Zoo has three. Our younger male and female pair have had cubs at another zoo and we expect them to breed again starting in 2007.  The entire captive population is descended from 37 wild-caught founders.  To find out more about captive management of Sumatran tigers check out this site:  Tiger Global Conservation Strategy.

It is now illegal to hunt tigers, however, this has not stopped the poaching of these animals for tiger products.  China, by virtue of its large population, is the largest consumer and producer of manufactured products containing tiger parts.

Outside tiger range countries, large numbers of bones ands other tiger products have been found in Taiwan and South Korea, many of which were from Indonesia. A great number of these medicinal tiger products are also consumed by Asian-Americans in North American cities, who can afford the expensive prices.  The World Wildlife Fund has recently made progress  working with the Schools of Chinese Medicine in North America to change attitudes toward the use tiger products.

At the turn of the century, there were probably over 100,000 tigers roaming the forests of central and southern Asia.  There are now only about 6,000. Three of the eight sub-species of tiger are already extinct.

Thursday, August 13, 2009

All About Komodo National Park


Komodo National Park lies in the Wallacea Region of Indonesia, identified by WWF and Conservation International as a global conservation priority area.  The Park is located between the islands of Sumbawa and Flores at the border of the Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) and Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTP) provinces. It includes three major islands, Komodo, Rinca and Padar, and numerous smaller islands together totaling 603 km2 of land.  The total size of Komodo National Park is presently 1,817 km2.  Proposed extensions of 25 km2 of land (Banta Island) and 479 km2 of marine waters would bring the total surface area up to 2,321 km2. (Click on the map to enlarge - 70kB)


Komodo National Park was established in 1980 and was declared a World Heritage Site and a Man and Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1986.  The park was initially established to conserve the  unique Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), first discovered by the scientific world in 1911 by  J.K.H. Van Steyn.  Since then conservation goals have expanded to protecting its entire biodiversity, both marine and terrestrial.

The majority of the people in and around the Park are fishermen originally from Bima (Sumbawa), Manggarai, South Flores, and South Sulawesi.  Those from South Sulawesi are from the Suku Bajau or Bugis ethnic groups.  The Suku Bajau were originally nomadic and moved from location to location in the region of Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara and Maluku, to make their livelihoods. Descendents of the original people of Komodo, the Ata Modo, still live in Komodo, but there are no pure blood people left and their culture and language is slowly being integrated with the recent migrants.

Little is known of the early history of the Komodo islanders. They were subjects of  the Sultanate of Bima, although the island’s remoteness from Bima meant its affairs were probably little troubled by the Sultanate other than by occasional demand for tribute.


There are presently almost 4,000 inhabitants living within the park spread out over four settlements (Komodo, Rinca, Kerora, and Papagaran). All villages existed prior to 1980 before the area was declared a national park.  In 1928 there were only 30 people living in Komodo Village, and approximately 250 people on Rinca Island in 1930. The population increased rapidly, and by 1999, there were 281 families numbering 1,169 people on Komodo, meaning that the local population had increased exponentially.  Komodo Village has had the highest population increase of the villages within the Park, mostly due to migration by people from Sape, Manggarai, Madura, and South Sulawesi. The number of buildings in Kampung Komodo has increased rapidly from 30 houses in 1958, to 194 houses in 1994, and 270 houses in 2000. Papagaran village is similar in size, with 258 families totaling 1,078 people. As of 1999, Rinca’s population was 835, and Kerora's population was 185 people. The total population currently living in the Park is 3,267 people, while 16,816 people live in the area immediately surrounding the Park.


The average level of education in the villages of Komodo National Park is grade four of elementary school. There is an elementary school located in each of the villages, but new students are not recruited each year. On average, each village has four classes and four teachers. Most of the children from the small islands in the Kecamatan Komodo (Komodo, Rinca, Kerora, Papagaran, Mesa) do not finish elementary school. Less than 10% of those which do graduate from elementary school will continue to high school since the major economic opportunity (fishing) does not require further education.  Children must be sent to Labuan Bajo to attend high school, but this is rarely done in fishermen’s families.


Most of the villages located in and around the Park have few fresh water facilities available, if any, particularly during the dry season. Water quality declines during this time period and many people become ill. Malaria and diarrhea are rampant in the area. On Mesa island, with a population of around 1,500 people, there is no fresh water available. Fresh water is brought by boat in jerrycans from Labuan Bajo. Each family needs an average of Rp 100,000.- per month to buy fresh water (2000). Almost every village has a local medical facility with staff, and at least a paramedic. The quality of medical care facilities is low.


Traditional Customs: Traditional communities in Komodo, Flores and Sumbawa have been subjected to outside influences and the influence of traditional customs is dwindling. Television, radio, and increased mobility have all played a part in accelerating the rate of change. There has been a steady influx of migrants into the area. At the moment nearly all villages consist of more than one ethnic group.

Religion: The majority of fishermen living in the villages in the vicinity of the Park are Muslims.  Hajis have a strong influence in the dynamics of community development.  Fishermen hailing from South Sulawesi (Bajau, Bugis) and Bima are mostly Moslems.  The community from Manggarai are mostly Christians.

Anthropology and Language: There are several cultural sites within the Park, particularly on Komodo Island. These sites are not well documented, however, and there are many questions concerning the history of human inhabitance on the island. Outside the Park, in Warloka village on Flores, there is a Chinese trading post remnant of some interest. Archeological finds from this site have been looted in the recent past. Most communities in and around the Park can speak Bahasa Indonesia. Bajo language is the language used for daily communication in most communities.


Topography: The topography is varied, with slopes from 0 – 80%.  There is little flat ground, and that is generally located near the beach.  The altitude varies from sea level to 735 m above sea level. The highest peak is Gunung Satalibo on Komodo Island.

Geology: The islands in Komodo National Park are volcanic in origin. The area is at the juncture of two continental plates: Sahul and Sunda. The friction of these two plates has led to large volcanic eruptions and caused the up-thrusting of coral reefs.  Although there are no active volcanoes in the park, tremors from Gili Banta (last eruption 1957) and Gunung Sangeang Api (last eruption 1996) are common. West Komodo probably formed during the Jurasic era approximately 130 million years ago. East Komodo, Rinca, and Padar probably formed approximately 49 million years ago during the Eocene era.

Climate:  Komodo National Park has little or no rainfall for approximately 8 months of the year, and is strongly impacted by monsoonal rains. High humidity levels year round are only found in the quasi-cloud forests on mountain tops and ridges. Temperatures generally range from 170C to 340C, with an average humidity level of 36%. From November through March the wind is from the west and causes large waves that hit the entire length of Komodo island’s west beach.  From April through October the wind is dry and large waves hit the south beaches of Rinca and Komodo islands.


The terrestrial ecosystems are strongly affected by the climate: a lengthy dry season with high temperatures and low rainfall, and seasonal monsoon rains. The Park is situated in a transition zone between Australian and Asian flora and fauna.  Terrestrial ecosystems include open grass-woodland savanna, tropical deciduous (monsoon) forest, and quasi cloud forest.

Due to the dry climate, terrestrial plant species richness is relatively low. The majority of terrestrial species are xerophytic and have specific adaptations to help them obtain and retain water. Past fires have selected for species that are fire-adapted, such as some grass species and shrubs.   Terrestrial plants found in Komodo National Park include grasses, shrubs, orchids, and trees.  Important food tree species for the local fauna include Jatropha curkas, Zizyphus sp., Opuntia sp., Tamarindus indicus, Borassus flabellifer, Sterculia foetida, Ficus sp., Cicus sp., ‘Kedongdong hutan’ (Saruga floribunda), and ‘Kesambi’ (Schleichera oleosa).


The terrestrial fauna is of rather poor diversity in comparison to the marine fauna. The number of terrestrial animal species found in the Park is not high, but the area is important from a conservation perspective as some species are endemic.. Many of the mammals are Asiatic in origin (e.g., deer, pig, macaques, civet). Several of the reptiles and birds are Australian in origin. These include the orange-footed scrubfowl, the lesser sulpher-crested cockatoo and the nosy friarbird.

Reptiles: The most famous of Komodo National Park's reptiles is the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis).  It is among the world's largest reptiles and can reach 3 meters or more in length and weigh over 70kg.  To find out more about this fascinating creature click here.

Other than the Komodo Dragon twelve terrestrial snake species are found on the island. including the cobra (Naja naja sputatrix), Russel’s pit viper (Vipera russeli), and the green tree vipers (Trimeresurus albolabris).   Lizards include 9 skink species (Scinidae), geckos (Gekkonidae), limbless lizards (Dibamidae), and, of course, the monitor lizards (Varanidae).  Frogs include the Asian Bullfrog (Kaloula baleata), Oreophyne jeffersoniana and Oreophyne darewskyi. They are typically found at higher, moister altitudes.

Mammals:  Mammals include the Timor deer (Cervus timorensis), the main prey of the Komodo dragon, horses (Equus sp.), water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), wild boar (Sus scrofa vittatus), long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus lehmanni), the endemic Rinca rat (Rattus rintjanus), and fruit bats.  One can also find goats, dogs and domestic cats.

Birds:  One of the main bird species is the orange-footed scrub fowl (Megapodius reinwardti), a ground dwelling bird.  In areas of savanna, 27 species were observed. Geopelia striata and Streptopelia chinensis were the most common species.  In mixed deciduous habitat, 28 bird species were observed, and Philemon buceroides, Ducula aenea, and Zosterops chloris were the most common.


The marine area constitutes 67% of  the Park. The open waters in the Park are between 100 and 200 m deep. The straits between Rinca and Flores and between Padar and Rinca, are relatively shallow (30 to 70 m deep), with strong tidal currents. The combination of strong currents, coral reefs and islets make navigation around the islands in Komodo National Park difficult and dangerous. Sheltered deep anchorage is available at the bay of Loh Liang on Komodo’s east coast, the South East coast of Padar, and the bays of Loh Kima and Loh Dasami on Rinca.

In the North of the Park water temperature ranges between 25 – 29°C. In the middle, the temperature ranges between 24 and 28°C. The temperatures are lowest in the South, ranging from 22 – 28°C. Water salinity is about 34 ppt  and the water is quite clear, although the waters closer to the islands are relatively more turbid.



The three major coastal marine plants are algae, seagrasses and mangrove trees.  Algae are  primitive plants, which do not have true roots, leaves or stems.  An important reef-building algae is the red coralline algae, which actually secretes a hard limestone skeleton that can encrust and cement dead coral together.  Seagrasses are modern plants that produce flowers, fruits and seeds for reproduction. As their name suggests, they generally look like large blades of grass growing underwater in sand near the shore. Thallasia sp. and Zastera spp. are the common species found in the Park.
Mangroves trees can live in salty soil or water, and are found throughout the Park. An assessment of mangrove resources identified at least 19 species of true mangroves and several more species of mangrove associates within the Park's borders.


Komodo National Park includes one of the world's richest marine environments.  It consists of forams, cnidaria (includes over 260 species of reef building coral), sponges (70 species), ascidians, marine worms, mollusks, echinoderms, crustaceans, cartilaginous and bony  fishes (over 1,000 species), marine reptiles, and marine mammals (dolphins, whales, and dugongs).  Some notable species with high commercial value include sea cucumbers (Holothuria), Napoleon wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), and groupers. 

Sunday, August 9, 2009

The only safe ferry service to Komodo National Park stopped

JAKARTA (JP): Komodo island in eastern Indonesia has been an important tourist destination as well as a World Heritage Site for Indonesia. It is the unique home of the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis), which lives nowhere else in the world.
As such, Komodo island is the major destination for travelers in eastern Indonesia and the tourism revenue generated is vital for the local economy. Now, the only safe public ferry service operated by the state-owned riverand lake transportation and ferry service company ASDP has been inexplicably stopped for almost a year, and tourism and the local economy is collapsing.
Ferry operator ASDP had operated a ferry service between Sape (Sumbawa) and Labuan Bajo (Flores) via Komodo island since the 1970s. This service provided a vital link not only for the Komodo islanders to bring in essential commodities, but also opened up the National Park to visitors by allowing them to cross the treacherous waters of the Lintah strait in relative safety.

Last year, an inexplicable decision was made by ASDP's local manager, Ibrahim, in Sape harbor, Sumbawa island to cease the service via Komodo -- thus effectively cutting off the island from any recognized form of public transportation.
Tourists, who have made the epic journey as far as Sumbawa or Flores, areforced to risk their lives on the perilous five to 10-hour crossing by local sailing craft, that are chartered by the mafia of Labuan Bajo boat owners.
Remote parts of Indonesia are difficult enough to reach safely at the best of times, and the most basic step in infrastructural development in the country is the provision of safe land and sea communications for its citizens.
The impoverished Komodo islanders have been dependent on the daily ferry service to bring vital vegetables and other foods which they are forbidden from growing in a National Park, and malnutrition and infectious diseases are rife. Skin infections, abscesses and a variety of respiratory diseases are present in the community, which are exacerbated by poor immunity due tomalnutrition. Komodo villagers receive no medical attention worthy of the name unless they travel the perilous and expensive voyage to Flores where facilities are only marginally better but too expensive.

Tourism collapse
With no safe ferry service, tourists are forced to charter local sailing craft at hugely inflated rates, and there have been many cases of tourists arriving at Sape port in Sumbawa expecting to catch the ferry, only to findthat they have to charter local fishing boats at exorbitant costs.
Komodo National Park guards have reported first-time tourists arriving intears and hysterical after spending 24 hours at sea. Apparently the Sape boat owners have lied to them saying it is a short journey.
Komodo is a long and dangerous sea journey from Sumbawa or Flores in one of the most dangerous seas in Indonesia. Indeed, accidents are common and local fishing boats are often lost to the strong currents and powerful whirlpools. Even an Indonesian minister and his wife were lost a few years ago in a good motorboat caught in a freak wind that makes the Lintah straitso dangerous.

The National Park figures cite figures showing that tourism has dropped off to only 10 percent. In the Flores village of Labuan Bajo, which has developed entirely from tourist money, boat owners have created a mafia to get hold of tourists' dollars to charter their boats as there is no ferry.
Even the government National Parks and Wildlife Service has to take risksin chartering local boats and their revenue from tourists to Komodo has plummeted to 10 percent what it was five years ago.
So why has this happened? Rumors of corruption certainly abound, and the office responsible for the decision is ASDP in Sape, Sumbawa, headed by Ibrahim. Those benefiting directly from the lack of ferry are the Labuan Bajo charter-boat mafia. Even the harbormaster's office in Labuan Bajo declined providing an answer to this dilemma as to why Komodo, the most important tourist attraction in Eastern Indonesia, has become inaccessibleand dangerous to tourists and why the local authorities provide such a ""primitive"" service.

Decentralization in Indonesia has allowed a degree of autonomy to make local decisions such as this. Indeed, it is unlikely that the appropriate authorities and ministries in Jakarta -- such as the land transportation directorate, the ministry of tourism, and the ministry of transportation -- are aware of this. Where national interests and valuable tourism are at stake, it may be considered appropriate for Jakarta to intervene.
The author is a UK-based medical doctor and regular visitor to Indonesia for medical aid and research.


Saturday, August 8, 2009

Video of Komodo

Video of Komodo

click here to view

click here to view

Komodo National Park Map

About Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis)

The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is a venomous species of lizard that inhabits the islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, and Gili Motang in Indonesia. A member of the monitor lizard family (Varanidae), it is the largest living species of lizard, growing to an average length of 2 to 3 metres (6.6 to 9.8 ft) and weighing around 70 kilograms (150 lb). Their unusual size is attributed to island gigantism, since there are no other carnivorous animals to fill the niche on the islands where they live, and also to the Komodo dragon's low metabolic rate.As a result of their size, these lizards dominate the ecosystems in which they live. Although Komodo dragons eat mostly carrion, they will also hunt and ambush prey including invertebrates, birds, and mammals.

Mating begins between May and August, and the eggs are laid in September. About twenty eggs are deposited in abandoned megapode nests and incubated for seven to eight months, hatching in April, when insects are most plentiful. Young Komodo dragons are vulnerable and therefore dwell in trees, safe from predators and cannibalistic adults. They take around three to five years to mature, and may live as long as fifty years. They are among the rare vertebrates capable of parthenogenesis, in which females may lay viable eggs if males are absent.

Komodo dragons were first recorded by Western scientists in 1910. Their large size and fearsome reputation make them popular zoo exhibits. In the wild their range has contracted due to human activities and they are listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. They are protected under Indonesian law, and a national park, Komodo National Park, was founded to aid protection efforts.

How to Get Komodo National Park

While most visitors enter Komodo National Park (KNP) through the gateway cities of Labuan Bajo in the west of Flores or Bima in eastern Sumbawa, the departure point for your trip is actually Denpasar, Bali.
By Air:
Indonesia Air Transport (IAT)
Depart : Everyday
DPS - LBJ : 10.00 – 11.30
LBJ - DPS : 12.00 – 13.30
Y CLASS : IDR 751.000
H CLASS : IDR 696.000
Trans Nusa Airlines (TGN)
Depart : Everyday
DPS – LBJ : 10.00 – 11.50 & 13.00 – 14.20
LBJ – DPS VIA BMU (BIMA) : 12.05 - 12.35
BMU-DPS : 12.50 – 13.45
LBJ – DPS : 14.35 – 15.15
Y CLASS : IDR 761.000
L CLASS : IDR 651.000
M CLASS : IDR 541.000
By Land:
  The gateway cities of Labuan Bajo and Bima are connected to Denpasar, Bali by overland buses.
By Sea (ferry):
  Travel time: approximately 36 hours

The gateway cities of Labuan Bajo and Bima are also connected to Denpasar, Bali by inter-island ferry.

Contact the Indonesia Sea Transportation Company (PELNI) at Jalan Raya Kuta No. 299, Tuban - Bali (Tel: 0361 - 763 963) to reserve a seat on the KM. Tilong Kabila, which departs Benoa Port, Bali bound for Bima and Labuan Bajo

Benoa-Bima-Labuan Bajo
Fortnightly (every two weeks) on Saturdays: 09.00-20.00 (next day).
One-way ticket (as of 10/6/06) from Rp. 143,000.00 - Rp. 435,000.00

Labuan Bajo-Bima-Benoa
Fortnightly (every two weeks) on Thursdays: 08.00-11.00 (next day).
One-way ticket (as of 10/6/06) from Rp. 143,000.00 - Rp. 435,000.00

Note: the ferry schedule and ticket prices may change with or without prior notice
By Sea (live-aboard):
  Komodo National Park is serviced by a wide range of live-aboard boats, with return packages to Komodo National Park from a variety of departure points, including Bali, Lombok, Bima and Labuan Bajo

Prices (as of 10/6/06) are ranging from USD 230.00 - USD 295.00 / person / night.
From Gateway Cities to Komodo National Park (KNP)
  You can easily organize a shared boat charter by local boat from either ports at Labuan Bajo or Bima (Sape) to the two major points of access in the Park: Loh Liang (on Komodo Island) or Loh Buaya (on Rinca Island)

Charter price (as of 10/6/06) - excluding meals, KNP entrance fee etc:
Labuan Bajo: KNP: Rp. 750,000 - 1,500,000 per boat / day
Bima (Sape): KNP: Rp. 1,500.000 - 2,000.000 per boat / day

Note: the charter prices may change with or without prior notice

Komodo National Park

Komodo National Park is located in the center of the Indonesian archipelago, between the islands of Sumbawa and Flores. Established in 1980, initially the main purpose of the Park was to conserve the unique Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) and its habitat. However, over the years, the goals for the Park have expanded to protecting its entire biodiversity, both terrestrial and marine. In 1986, the Park was declared a World Heritage Site and a Man and Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO, both indications of the Park's biological importance.

Komodo National Park includes three major islands: Komodo, Rinca and Padar, as well as numerous smaller islands creating a total surface area (marine and land) of 1817km (proposed extensions would bring the total surface area up to 2,321km2). As well as being home to the Komodo dragon, the Park provides refuge for many other  notable terrestrial species such as the orange-footed scrub fowl, an endemic rat, and the Timor deer. Moreover, the Park includes one of the richest marine environments including coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, seamounts, and semi-enclosed bays. These habitats harbor more than 1,000 species of fish, some 260 species of reef-building coral, and 70 species of sponges. Dugong, sharks, manta rays, at least 14 species of whales, dolphins, and sea turtles also make Komodo National Park their home.   

Threats to terrestrial biodiversity include the increasing pressure on forest cover and water resources as the local human population has increased 800% over the past 60 years. In addition, the Timor deer population, the preferred prey source for the endangered Komodo dragon, is still being poached. Destructive fishing practices such as dynamite-, cyanide, and compressor fishing severely threaten the Park's marine resources by destroying both the habitat (coral reefs) and the resource itself (fish and invertebrate stocks). The present situation in the Park is characterized by reduced but continuing destructive fishing practices primarily by immigrant fishers, and high pressure on demersal stocks like lobsters, shellfish, groupers and napoleon wrasse. Pollution inputs, ranging from raw sewage to chemicals, are increasing and may pose a major threat in the future.

Today, the PKA Balai Taman Nasional Komodo and PT. Putri Naga Komodo are working together to protect the Park's vast resources. Our goals are to protect the Park's biodiversity (both marine and terrestrial) and the breeding stocks of commercial fishes for replenishment of surrounding fishing grounds. The main challenge is to reduce both threats to the resources and conflicts between incompatible activities. Both parties have a long term commitment to protecting the marine biodiversity of Komodo National Park.